Biogas löser flera hållbarhetsmål

Biogas löser inte bara en eller två av världens stora miljöutmaningar – utan tre. I alla fall om världens länder använder den nordiska modellen. Ja, på ett eller annat sätt kan biogas faktiskt medverka till FN:s samtliga 17 globala hållbarhetsmål.

(Artikel från Mikael Sönne, Linköpings universitet)

”Om biogas bara produceras på ett bra sätt finns det inga nackdelar. De flesta andra energislag innebär faror eller risker på några områden, det vi forskare brukar kalla problembyten. Kärnkraft kan till exempel vara bra ut klimatsynpunkt, men innebär stora risker och problem med avfall.” Det säger Mats Eklund, här fotograferad i Sättuna utanför Linköping. Foto: Magnus Johansson

Problem hänger ihop

Avfallshantering, förnybara drivmedel och hållbar matproduktion – över hela världen står städer med omgivande landsbygd inför dessa stora utmaningar. Stora mängder avfall ska tas om hand, transportsystemet och kollektivtrafiken måste byggas ut och fungera väl och lantbruket ska på ett rationellt sätt producera mat. Allt ska dessutom göras miljövänligt och klimatsmart.

Mats Eklund, föreståndare för Biogas Research center, hävdar att biogasen samtidigt kan lösa alla dessa tre problem. Att bara tänka på biogas som ett drivmedel, vilket vi ofta gör i Sverige, leder tankarna fel.

– Ja, vi tycker det. Vi vill gärna stimulera fram en bredare systemsyn. Biogas är ett utmärkt drivmedel med stor klimatnytta, men det är också så mycket mer, säger han.

Grafisk illustration av biogasproduktion.

Den nordiska modellen. Avfall blir biogas blir fordonsbränsle och biogödsel.

I den nordiska modellen för produktion och konsumtion av biogas kopplas dessa tre områden ihop. Avloppsslam, avfall från slakterier och annat livsmedelsavfall tas om hand och används som råvara för att producera biogas. Gasen uppgraderas till fordonsgas som blir ett utmärkt drivmedel för städernas bussar, medan biprodukten biogödsel blir växtnäring för lantbruket. Ur klimatsynpunkt är den produkten att föredra framför både fossil mineralgödsel och naturgödsel.

Här kan ni läsa hela artikel

 

Ny BRC publikation!

Methane potentials and organic matter characterization of wood fibres from pulp and paper mills: The influence of raw material, pulping process and bleaching technique

Eva-Maria Ekstrand, Mattias Hedenström, Bo Håkan Svensson, Sepehr Shakeri Yekta, Annika Björn

Highlights

• Kraft and sulphite fibres had high and stable CH4 potentials (390–400 Nml CH4 g VS-1).
• Shifts in raw material gave large variations in CH4 potential for CTMP fibres.
• Removal of lignin was the most important factor for high CH4 potential.
• Bleaching of CTMP softwood improved CH4 potential, likely by deacetylation.
• Unbleached TMP fibres were inhibitory to AD, while bleaching alleviated this effect.

Abstract: During the process of pulp- and papermaking, large volumes of fibre-rich primary sludge are generated. Anaerobic digestion of primary sludge offers a substantial potential for methane production as an alternative approach to the inefficient energy recoveries by commonly used incineration techniques. However, a systematic study of the importance of upstream process techniques for the methane potential of pulp fibres is lacking. Therefore, biochemical methane potentials were determined at mesophilic conditions for 20 types of fibres processed by a variety of pulping and bleaching techniques and from different raw materials. This included fibres from kraft, sulphite, semi-chemical, chemical thermo-mechanical (CTMP) and thermo-mechanical pulping plants and milled raw wood. The pulping technique was clearly important for the methane potential, with the highest potential achieved for kraft and sulphite fibres (390–400 Nml CH4 g VS− 1 ). For raw wood and CTMP, hardwood fibres gave substantially more methane than the corresponding softwood fibres (240 compared to 50 Nml CH4 g VS− 1 and 300 compared to 160 Nml CH4 g VS− 1 , respectively). Nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of the organic content demonstrated that the relative lignin content of the fibres was an important factor for methane production, and that an observed positive effect of bleaching on the methane potential of softwood CTMP fibres was likely related to a higher degree of deacetylation and improved accessibility of the hemicellulose. In conclusion, fibres from kraft and sulphite pulping are promising substrates for methane production irrespective of raw material or bleaching, as well as fibres from CTMP pulping of hardwood.

Här kan ni läsa publikationen (på engelska):

Ekstrand et. al 2020. Biomass and Bioenergy 143: 105824

 

Ny BRC publikation!

Post-treatment of dewatered digested sewage sludge by thermophilic high-solid digestion for pasteurization with positive energy output

Erik Nordell, Jan Moestedt, Julia Österman, Sepehr Shakeri Yekta, Annika Björn, Li Sun, Anna Schnürer

Highlights

• Thermophilic dry digestion of DDS increases methane yield by 6%.
• Thermophilic dry digestion of DDS at 52 °C efficiently converts organic N.
• Thermophilic dry digestion of DDS is stable at high free ammonia levels (2 g/L)
• Increasing ammonia level enriches members of the methanogenic family WSA2.
• Sanitization of DDS by thermophilic dry digestion has a positive energy balance.

Abstract: This study investigated the possibility to use thermophilic anaerobic high solid digestion of dewatered digested sewage sludge (DDS) at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) as a measure to increase total methane yield, achieve pasteurization and reduce risk for methane emissions during storage of the digestate. A pilot-scale plug-flow reactor was used to mimic thermophilic post-treatment of DDS from a WWTP in Linköping, Sweden. Process operation was evaluated with respect to biogas process performance, using both chemical and microbiological parameters. Initially, the process showed disturbance, with low methane yields and high volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation. However, after initiation of digestate recirculation performance improved and the specific methane production reached 46 mL CH4/g VS. Plug flow conditions were assessed with lithium chloride and the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was determined to be 19–29 days, sufficient to reach successful pasteurization. Degradation rate of raw protein was high and resulted in ammonia-nitrogen levels of up to 2.0 g/L and a 30% lower protein content in the digestate as compared to DDS. Microbial analysis suggested a shift in the methane producing pathway, with dominance of syntrophic acetate oxidation and the candidate methanogen family WSA2 by the end of the experiment. Energy balance calculations based on annual DDS production of 10 000 ton/year showed that introduction of high-solid digestion as a post-treatment and pasteurization method would result in a positive energy output of 340 MWh/year. Post-digestion of DDS also decreased residual methane potential (RMP) by>96% compared with fresh DDS.

Här kan ni läsa publikationen (på engelska):

   Nordell et al. 2021. Waste Management 119 (1): 11-21

 

Biogas i det hållbara samhället: en kurs för dig som vill få en helhetsbild av biogas!

Kursen ger kunskaper inom alla delar som rör biogas. Du kommer få förståelse för hela cirkeln som innefattar återvinning av restprodukter, produktion av drivmedel och biogödsel och mycket mer. Den passar dig som är intresserad av att arbeta med framtidens omställning till cirkulär ekonomi och klimatneutralitet.

Omställning för att nå våra klimatmål måste ske snabbt och hållbart. Biogas är en av lösningarna som har en betydande roll i vårt framtida och fossilfria samhälle. Det här är en kurs för dig som vill få en helhetsbild av biogas – hur den produceras och bidrar till ett cirkulär och resurseffektivt samhälle.

Nästa kurstillfälle: 18 Jan – 23 Mar 2021

Sista ansökningsdatum: 15 oktober 2020 

Sök här!

Klicka på bilden nedan för att få mer information om kursen:

BRC Nyhetsbrev nr. 6 är ute!

Vårt senaste BRC-nyhetsbrev är ute!
Vår tanke är att detta ska vara ett sätt för er att hålla er uppdaterade om spännande saker som hänt och är på gång i BRC.
Klicka på bilden nedan för att komma till nyhetsbrevet nr.6/2020.

Här hittar ni också alla våra tidigare nyhetsbrev under den pågående etappen.

Trevlig läsning!

Ny BRC publikation!

Shaping sustainable markets—A conceptual framework illustrated by the case of biogas in Sweden

Mikael Ottosson, Thomas Magnusson, Hans Andersson

Abstract: By merging findings from transition studies with recent literature on market-shaping, this paper outlines a conceptual framework that describes the shaping of sustainable markets. The framework comprises three critical processes: enabling exchange practices, proving the system and constructing the narrative. Individually, these processes generate different kinds of value – traded, demonstrated and expected value – and the value output from each process serves as input to the other two processes. Hence the value streams link the processes together. We illustrate the framework by analyzing market-shaping processes for biogas in Sweden. The case analysis shows how public and private actors have engaged in a multitude of activities that have built up the market-shaping processes. The analysis highlights the recursive nature of sustainable market-shaping, showing how key actors must repeatedly respond to tensions resulting from growth and aspirations of growth.

Här kan ni läsa publikationen (på engelska):

Biogas 2020 – Guldruschen: flyttas fram till den 1-2 mars 2021

Vinjett biogaskonferens Kalmar 2020

Biogas 2021 – Guldruschen

Ny information 31 augusti 2020: Konferensen flyttas fram till den 1-2 mars 2021. Välkommen då istället till Kalmar!

Vi vill erbjuda bästa möjliga upplevelse, där nätverkande och nya kreativa samarbeten ska frodas. Organisationskommittén för konferensen har därför beslutat att inte genomföra konferensen i oktober 2020 utan istället den 1-2 mars 2021. Då berättar vi vad som händer inom biogasområdet och du får träffa ledande företag och forskare. Ta del av utvecklingen inom biogas – fordon, teknik, klimatnytta, hållbarhet med mera. Lär hur man får det att hända i praktiken genom exempel från hela landet och utblickar internationellt. Upptäck de mest hållbara fordonen och träffa utställande företag och, inte minst, ta chansen att få höra hur Kalmarregionen har lyckats lägga grunden för en guldrusch för biogas.

Här hittar du program information och annat material om konferensen (pdf), så som det var tänkt att genomföras hösten 2020.

Hålla dig uppdaterad om Biogas 2021 – Guldruschen: https://www.regionkalmar.se/samarbetsportalen/regional-utveckling/miljo/biogas-2020-guldruschen/

Välkommen!

Ur programmet

  • Alice Bah Kuhnke, Europaparlamentariker (mp) och ordförande i gruppen för parlamentets arbete med omställningsprogrammet ”Green deal”.
  • Besök teknikleverantör, produktionsanläggning och tankställe
  • Jerry Murphy, professor vid University College of Cork, ordförande för IEA Task 37 (biogas)
  • Kalmar läns biogasresa – vägen mot guldruschen
  • Mats Eklund, professor, Biogas Research Center

Parallella spår

  • Ecodriving på riktigt!
    Nu kör vi på biogas.
  • Iskall gas hetare än någonsin!
    Nu flyter den tunga trafiken.
  • Biogas, den bästa tiokamparen!
    Biogaslösningar för hållbara städer och regioner.
  • Mer biogas i praktiken!
    Hur kan vi producera 10 TWh i Sverige 2030?

Konferensen arrangeras av BiogasBoost, BRC, Drive LBG, Energikontor Sydost, Länsstyrelsen Kalmar län och Region Kalmar län.

Stort tack till våra sponsorer!

Ny BRC publikation!

Cleaner heavy transports – Environmental and economic analysis of liquefied natural gas and biomethane

Marcus Gustafsson och Niclas Svensson

Abstract: Looking to reduce climate change impact and particle emissions, the heavy-duty transport sector is moving towards a growth within technology and infrastructure for use of liquefied natural gas (LNG). This opens an opportunity for the biogas market to grow as well, especially in the form of liquefied biomethane (LBM). However, there is a need to investigate the economic conditions and the possible environmental benefits of using LBM rather than LNG or diesel in heavy transports. This study presents a comparison of well-to-wheel scenarios for production, distribution and use of LBM, LNG and diesel, assessing both environmental and economic aspects in a life cycle perspective. The results show that while LNG can increase the climate change impact compared to diesel by up to 10%, LBM can greatly reduce the environmental impact compared to both LNG and diesel. With a German electricity mix, the climate change impact can be reduced by 45 – 70% compared to diesel with LBM from manure, and by 50 – 75% with LBM from food waste. If digestate is used to replace mineral fertilizer, the impact of LBM can even be less than 0. However, the results vary a lot depending on the type of feedstock, the electricity system and whether the calculations are done according to RED or ISO guidelines. Economically, it can be hard for LBM to compete with LNG, due to relatively high production costs, and some form of economic incentives are likely required.

Här kan ni läsa publikationen (på engelska):

    Gustafsson & Svensson 2020. Journal of Cleaner Production 123535

Ny BRC publikation!

Dimensions and characteristics of biogas policies – Modelling the European policy landscape

Marcus Gustafsson och Stefan Anderberg

Abstract: Biogas solutions typically span across several sectors, such as waste handling, energy and transport. While this can be an advantage in comparison to other alternatives, it also creates an intricate policy structure that is challenging to overview, making it difficult to evaluate consequences of different policy changes that might not be directly related to biogas. This article presents an attempt to describe the institutional conditions for biogas solutions in the EU by defining the dimensions and characteristics of policies and policy instruments influencing biogas. A five-dimensional model of biogas policies is proposed: type of policy; administrative area; administrative level; targeted part of the value chain; and continuity and change over time. This reflects the complexity of the conditions for biogas solutions and constitutes a platform for describing, discussing and developing biogas policies. From the proposed model, it becomes clear that biogas policy is a very dispersed and incoherent policy area. Thus, there is an apparent risk that the responsibility for biogas policy is diffuse and has no obvious owner among the involved actors, making the framework of biogas policies patchy and ineffective. This model can contribute to an improved overview of biogas policies, and can be used as a tool for comparing the policy landscapes in different countries.

Här kan ni läsa publikationen (på engelska):

  Gustafsson & Anderberg 2021. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 135: 110200

Thesis Project Opportunity!

Thesis Project within Biotechnology

We offer thesis project to student with an education in technical biology, chemical biology, chemical engineering or similar, and with laboratory experience. This project is industrially relevant with a potential real impact on the use of digestate after anaerobic digestion.

Lab-scale biogas reactors

Lab-scale biogas reactors at Tema Environmental Change (Photo: Eva-Maria Ekstrand)

Improved dewaterability of digestate from anaerobic digestion by the addition of pulp and paper mill primary sludge

Anaerobic digestion (AD) of biological waste for biogas production is an important process in today’s society, both in terms of waste reduction as well as the generation of a carbon neutral fuel. Reuse of the nutrient-rich residue (digestate) is essential and can have a significant effect on the economy of the process. The digestate often contains > 90 % water, and therefore dewatering can be an important step to lower the cost for transport to potential customers. This project aims to investigate if the addition of pulp and paper mill primary sludge to the AD process can improve the dewaterability of the sludge, and thereby increase its use and value on the market.

In short, the student will carry out a laboratory study using lab-scale biogas reactors primarily digesting food waste. Primary sludge (rich in fibres) from different types of pulp mills will then be added to the reactors, and the biogas production and dewaterability of the sludge will be assessed.

Supervision

The thesis project is supervised by researchers from LiU, and the project is part of a research area in the Biogas Research Center (BRC), a national competence center financed by the Swedish Energy Agency, LiU, the Swedish Agricultural University (SLU) and several industrial partners. The student will be invited to take part in and present their results in one of the center’s larger meetings, where several companies will be present. Desired starting date is September 2020, but this can be discussed.

We are looking for a student with an education in technical biology, chemical biology, chemical engineering or similar, and with laboratory experience. This project is industrially relevant with a potential real impact on the use of digestate after anaerobic digestion.

Contact

LiU/BRC: Eva-Maria Ekstrand, eva-maria.ekstrand@liu.se

(From https://liu.se/en/article/thesis-project-in-improved-dewatering-of-residual-rot-after-biogas-production)